DNA Sequencing and Homologous Expression of a Small Peptide Conferring Immunity to Gassericin A, a Circular Bacteriocin Produced by Lactobacillus gasseri LA39
Yasushi Kawai, Joni Kusnadi, Rober Kemperman, Jan Kok, Yoshiyuki Ito, Mikiko Endo, Kensuke Arakawa, Hideaki Uchida, Junko Nishimura, Haruki Kitazawa, and Tadao Saito
APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Mar. 2009, Vol. 75, No. 5 p. 1324–1330
Gassericin A, produced by Lactobacillus gasseri LA39, is a hydrophobic circular bacteriocin. The DNA region surrounding the gassericin A structural gene, gaaA, was sequenced, and seven open reading frames (ORFs) of 3.5 kbp (gaaBCADITE) were found with possible functions in gassericin A production, secretion, and immunity. The deduced products of the five consecutive ORFs gaaADITE have homology to those of genes involved in butyrivibriocin AR10 production, although the genetic arrangements are different in the two circular bacteriocin genes. GaaI is a small, positively charged hydrophobic peptide of 53 amino acids containing a putative transmembrane segment. Heterologous expression and homologous expression of GaaI in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 and L. gasseri JCM1131T, respectively, were studied. GaaI-expressing strains exhibited at least sevenfold-higher resistance to gassericin A than corresponding control strains, indicating that gaaI encodes an immunity peptide for gassericin A. Comparison of GaaI to peptides with similar characteristics found in the circular bacteriocin gene loci is discussed.